Endoscopy is the insertion of a long, thin tube into the body for a thorough examination of an internal organ or tissue. Certain functions, including scanning and minor surgery, can also be used.
Endoscopes are minimally invasive and can be placed in openings such as the mouth or anus in the body.
How does endoscopy works?
For example in the knee or abdomen, they can be inserted into small incisions. Small incision surgery with special instruments such as the endoscope is called keyhole surgery.
Since modern endoscopy offers relatively low risk, provides detailed pictures and operates Quickly, it has proven incredibly useful in many medical fields.
In this article, we will explain some forms of endoscopy, why and how, the general process, and any potential risks.
Quick Endoscopy facts
Here are some key endoscopy points. The main article contains more details and additional information.
- Endoscopies are fast procedures that are relatively safe.
- The first endoscope was designed in 1806.
- The principal purposes behind endoscopy are examination, affirmation and treatment.
- Endoscopy can be used to remove tumors or polyps from the digestive tract.
Endoscopy is useful for studying many systems in the human body; these areas include
- Gastrointestinal tract: throat, endoscopy stomach, and duodenum (esophagogastroduodenoscopy), small digestive system , internal organ/colon (colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy), bile conduit, rectum (rectoscopy), and butt (anoscopy).
- Respiratory tract: Nose (rhinoscopy), lower respiratory tract (bronchoscopy).
- Ear: Otoscopy
- Urinary tract: Cystoscopy
- Female regenerative tract (gynoscopy): Cervix (colposcopy), uterus (hysteroscopy), fallopian tubes (falloposcopy).
- Through a little entry point: Abdominal or pelvic depression (laparoscopy), inside of a joint (arthroscopy), organs of the chest (thoracoscopy and mediastinoscopy).
What is a capsule endoscopy?
In the mid1990s, Capsule endoscopy was developed and includes a wireless lens. The camera is small enough to fit into a capsule and can be swallowed (about the size of a vitamin tablet).
As the capsule passes through the digestive tract, thousands of photos are taken and transmitted to a device attached to a portable belt.
The endoscopy capsule is used for the small intestine image, a region that uses standard endoscopy to be difficult to image. It is also very useful to examine the small intestinal mucosa and to diagnose Crohn's disease's reliable source. The capsule usually passes in 24 to 48 hours through the digestive system.
This technique is relatively new and was accepted in 2001 by the U.S. FDA for use. To date, more than 500,000 endoscopic procedures have been performed per capsule and almost 1,000 reports covering its medical use have been published.
- A doctor will advise on how to do endoscopy preparation because there will be different requirements for different procedures.
- The operation does not require a hospital overnight stay and usually only takes about an hour to complete. The doctor will give you instructions on how to to do endoscopy preparations
- For many types of endoscopy, the individual has to fast for about 12 hours, although this varies depending on the type.
- For gut investigation procedures, laxatives can be taken the day before to clean the system.
- A doctor will perform an examination before the endoscopy. It is important to mention all current medications (including supplements) and all previous procedures.
To some degree, the treatment will depend on the reason for the endoscopy
Main three reason to carry out an endoscopy
If a person has vomiting, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, stomach ulcers, difficulty swallowing or gastrointestinal bleeding, for example, an endoscope can be used to determine the cause.
- Confirmation of diagnosis:
Endoscopy may be used to conduct a biopsy to verify cancer diagnosis or other illnesses.
- Endoscope Surgery /Treatment:
An endoscope surgery can be used to directly treat a disease; for example, endoscopy can be used to cauterize (seal with heat) a bleeding vessel or remove a polyp.
Endoscopy will sometimes be paired with a different procedure like an ultrasound. It can be used to place the ultrasonic probe close to organs that can be hard to imagine, such as the pancreas
Occasionally modern endoscopes are fitted with sensitive lights using band imaging. Another method of imaging uses different blue and green wavelengths to help the physician distinguish precancerous conditions more easily.
Endoscopy is usually done when the patient is conscious, although the patient often gets local anesthesia (usually anesthetic spray at the back of the throat); the patient is often sedated.
For endoscopic procedures involving mouth entry, a mouthguard will be used to protect the teeth and lips during insertion of the tube
- Surgical endoscopes help reduce the duration of bleeding and recovery.
- Endoscopy has progressed in recent years, allowing some forms of surgery to be performed using a modified endoscope; this makes the surgery less invasive.
- Procedures such as removing the gall bladder, sealing and attaching the fallopian tubes and removing small tumors from the digestive system or lungs are now common
What is laparoscope?
A laparoscope (also called laparoscopic surgery) is a modified endoscope used for keyhole surgery.
Laparoscopic surgery requires only a small incision and may be used for appendectomies (removal of the appendix), hysterectomies (removal of the uterus) and prostatectomies (removal of prostate tissue).
Patients lose less blood during and after surgery using this technique and can heal much more easily than normal surgical procedures
Endoscopy Risk and adverse effects
Endoscopy is a relatively safe technique, but some risks remain. The risks depend on the area under consideration.
Endoscopy risk may include
- excessive sedation, although sedation is not always necessary
- Feeling bloated after the procedure for a short time
- Mild cramping
- a numb throat for a few hours due to the use of a local anesthetic
Investigative domain infection
- This occurs most often when additional procedures are performed at the same time. Infections are usually minor and can be treated with an antibiotic course
- Strong pain in the endoscopy region
- A stomach or esophagus lining perforation or tear occurs in 1 case between 2500 and 11 000 cases
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